POLYVINYL ALCOHOL (PVA, PVOH) | How Easily Does it Biodegrade?

When we develop products, we stick to these 3 principles:

  1. It has to biodegrade (that means it will decompose into reusable nutrients)
  2. It has to have an eco certification (meaning the ingredients that make our products are 3rd party accredited, so they are best in class for you and our planet)
  3. It’s gotta be plastic free (both to reduce the carbon footprint and, again, to biodegrade)

When we started developing our plastic free liquid dish soap, we wrestled with what plastic alternatives we could use to store it.

The first option we explored was PVOH, PVA, or PVAL - otherwise known as Polyvinyl alcohol.  

PVA/PVOH gained popularity with Dishwasher pods and has since been used to contain a variety of Dishwasher, Laundry detergents and Shampoos for a number of ‘eco brands’, including both 'pods' and also 'laundry sheets', which are becoming increasingly popular.  

PVA/PVOH is technically 'plastic' because it is pliable - bendy and stretchy - but it's not the same plastic as a plastic bag because of what happens to it when it contacts water.

Many companies claim PVA/PVOH is ‘biodegradable’, but when we started digging deeper, this ‘eco-claim’ wasn't so cut and dry.



In our research, PVOH does not biodegrade so much as it dissolves into a "non-harmful" monomer, and while those molecules can biodegrade, the time it takes for them to actually biodegrade is a little foggy.  Years, decades, 100 years or more?  Our research wasn't able to provide any conclusive timelines. 

Advocates for PVOH say this is not a problem and it’s a lot better than having mounds of 'solid' plastic floating around the ocean, but it still is leaving ‘something’ behind.  

In a recent Journal article from the Royal Society titled: Microplastics and synthetic particles ingested by deep-sea amphipods in six of the deepest marine ecosystems on Earth, Scientists from Newcastle University conducted what they consider to be a more comprehensive study of microplastics in our Oceans by exploring the ingestion of micro plastics in deep sea trenches.  

By focusing on the deepest reaches of our Oceans, we are better able to glean just how far microplastic pollution has travelled.

“A subsample of microfibres and fragments analysed using FTIR were found to be a collection of plastic and synthetic materials (Nylon, polyethylene, polyamide, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylchloride, often with inorganic filler material), semi-synthetic (rayon and lyocell) and natural fibre (ramie). Notwithstanding, this study reports the deepest record of microplastic ingestion, indicating that anthropogenic debris is bioavailable to organisms at some of the deepest locations in the Earth's oceans.” (A. J. Jamieson, L. S. R. Brooks, W. D. K. Reid, S. B. Piertney, B. E. Narayanaswamy and T. D. Linley, The Royal Society Publishing, February 27th, 2019).


The other challenge with PVOH is that it is derived from petrochemicals (oil based and therefore against dev principal 2).  That said, right now, it's really hard to avoid petrochemicals - hence why we are in the climate crisis we are currently in - because even most 'plant based' cleaners (including our own) contain small amounts of petrochemicals.   


Given the unknowns about biodegradation, long term impacts and the reliance on petrochemicals, we chose not to use PVA/PVOH and instead developed our own pod made from all natural materials.  Materials we were already familiar with from our other products - beeswax and other naturally occurring oils, waxes and resins.

What’s great about natural materials is that you don’t need a pile of research to figure out if they decompose - you can just toss them in the earth and know they'll go away.

  1. They cost moreR&D is time consuming and expensive.  We are still in the early stages of developing our pods and there are many improvements to be made - both from the design/materials and the manufacturing - and so that means we can't make them as cheaply as their PVA/PVOH counterparts.
  2. There is still 'waste': While the pods are natural and they can be repurposed, reused and composted, there is still 'waste' left behind.  PVOH on the other hand just dissolves.

When it comes to 'price', we did come up with a work around through the Plastic Free Club, but we feel that if we really want to make a change, we need to hit the MASSES and that requires a major drop in the price.  

And this has led us back to a core question.  Should we re-visit PVA/PVOH?

It’s definitely a step forward from traditional plastic, and we're already exploring an improvement that could see a similar film made without oil, but that is a couple years out (at best).  In the meantime, we are left deciding:


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  • It’s wonderful to everyone and safe our earth

    Rajesh mojila on
  • You are trailblazing plastic-free products. Stay on course. Eventually, others will follow. Completely plastic-free products are why I trust your company. Go for it!

    SUmmer on
  • Please no PVA/PVOH. Liquid dish soap is a convenience. Your bar soap is a reasonable alternative.

    LisaP on
  • Keep persuing the non plastic route! I agree that maybe you should explore options like soy wax so we don’t exploit bees. I’ve also seen plastic bags made out of cassava, which i think dissolve in water. If there was a dry dishwashing tablet inside, instead of liquid soap, that would be a great replacement for the plastic wrappers.

    Lara on
  • How about hemp plastic? Have you looked into that option?

    Brenda LEe on
  • How about returning to glass? Google says: “Glass bottles and jars are 100% recyclable and can be recycled endlessly without any loss in purity or quality. Over a ton of natural resources are saved for every ton of glass recycled.”

    On the issue of bees’ wax: There has been a significant amount of research done on the intelligence of honey bees. There isn’t a way to harvest wax or honey that doesn’t hurt and kill bees. There are alternatives to bees’ wax and honey that cause much less suffering.

    All that said, it’s good that people are looking for alternatives to plastic. It seems to me that we need only to look back to see what we were doing before plastic swamped the market.

    Rick Bogle on
  • I believe we need to get rid of all plastic. We also need to be aware of what others see. I won’t wear Faux fur, because others won’t necessarily know it’s not real fur. If it looks like fur, it promotes the fur industry. If it looks like plastic, it promotes the use of plastic. The more we don’t see plastic products of any kind, the sooner we will overcome our addiction to plastic.

    Denise Fantinato on
  • I like the idea of natural pods, without PVOH. Soy wax sounds good. Beeswax could end up becoming too exploitative of bees. Thank you for your integrity!

    Wendy Hollis on
  • An interesting question, but I see an easy answer. Don’t do plastic. I’m sure the short-term cost drops to use plastic, but it adds to the long-term ecosystem costs. I’m happy to pay more. . .

    Rik Smith Ph.D. on
  • It is so tempting and convenient but still plastic. I have a refill shop/zero waste store, and am actively looking for pods for both laundry and dish washers without PVOH. Please, Keep researching! I will be a devout customer to the company or companies who can provide a solution here. Keep going!!!

    allison burgund on

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